Knowledge and Practices of Ergonomics in Students of Private Universities Using Computers

Ergonomics in Students Using Computers


  • Faraya Yousaf Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Amena Batool Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Asifa Qurat ul Ain University of Lahore
  • Ayesha Nawaz Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Mohammad Rehan Amjad Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Anfal Sadaqat University of South Asia, Lahore, Pakistan



computers, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders


Background: Using computers in an awkward posture for a prolonged period leads to musculoskeletal disorders. The proper use of ergonomics while using a computer or laptop is imperative. Improper use of computers may affect health and cause musculoskeletal disorders. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practices of ergonomics in students of private universities using computers or laptops. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey conducted in different private universities in Lahore the data was collected through a self-made questionnaire. The sample size is 600 calculated by using a 90% confidence interval and a 5% margin of error. Data were collected from both male and female students aged between 18 to 26 years’ private university students using laptops or computers for at least five years and students who have musculoskeletal disorders and desktop computer users for less than five years were excluded. The categorical variables were evaluated by frequency and percentages, while mean and standard deviation were calculated by continuous variables. Results: Despite the presence of chair arms, 46.2% of employees can easily reach their workstations, while 53.8% are unable to do so. About 46.2 percent of people find it difficult to relax their arms and shoulders without the arms of their chair interfering. 53.8% of people can relax their arms and shoulders without being hindered by the arms of their chair. When working on a keyboard, 55.3% of people have their shoulders relaxed and not raised, whereas 44.7% have their shoulders raised and are not relaxed. 54% of people prefer to rest their arms at their sides rather than have them extended out in front of them, while 46% prefer not to rest their arms at their sides and instead have them stretched out in front of them. Conclusion: It was concluded that knowledge and practices of computer ergonomics in students are essential to avoid various health, postural and musculoskeletal problems. Ergonomics interventions aimed to prevent musculoskeletal disorders can be applied through the assessment of risks and safety measures. Occupational therapists and physical therapists can help computer workers regarding the posture and guidelines required for prolonged computer work.


da Costa BR, Vieira ER. Risk factors for work‐related musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of recent longitudinal studies. American journal of industrial medicine 2010; 53(3): 285-323.

Jain R, Rana KB, Meena MLJIJoWHM. Association of individual and device usage factors with musculoskeletal disorders amongst handheld devices users during homestay due to pandemic. 2021.

Zapata AL, Moraes AJP, Leone C, Doria-Filho U, Silva CAA. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes related to computer and video game use in adolescents. European journal of pediatrics 2006; 165(6): 408-14.

Mohammad A, Abbas B, Narges HJIAoHS. Relationship between knowledge of ergonomics and workplace condition with musculoskeletal disorders among nurses. 2019; 6(3): 121.

Kumar BKM, Thiruvalluvan GT, Arjunan MKJJoFM, Care P. Effectiveness on knowledge about computer vision syndrome among medical coding trainee in medical coding training institute in urban Chennai, Tamil Nadu–A cross-sectional study. 2021; 10(1): 228.

Basakci Calik B, Yagci N, Oztop M, Caglar DJIJoOS, Ergonomics. Effects of risk factors related to computer use on musculoskeletal pain in office workers. 2022; 28(1): 269-74.

Tholl C, Bickmann P, Wechsler K, Froböse I, Grieben CJBMD. Musculoskeletal disorders in video gamers–a systematic review. 2022; 23(1): 1-16.

Deng J, Liu J, Yang T, Duan CJCiHB. Behavioural and economic impacts of end-user computing satisfaction: Innovative work behaviour and job performance of employees. 2022; 136: 107367.

Jain R, Rana KB, Meena MLJSC. An integrated multi-criteria decision-making approach for identifying the risk level of musculoskeletal disorders among handheld device users. 2021: 1-11.

Zalat MM, Amer SM, Wassif GA, El Tarhouny SA, Mansour TMJIJoOS, Ergonomics. Computer vision syndrome, visual ergonomics and amelioration among staff members in a Saudi medical college. 2022; 28(2): 1033-41.

Mohammadipour F, Pourranjbar M, Naderi S, Rafie FJJom, life. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Iranian office workers: prevalence and risk factors. 2018; 11(4): 328.

Adewusi OJ, Adetunji A, Ibitoye SEJAoE, Health O. Factors associated with direct use of laptop on the lap among male university undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria. 2021; 76(5): 282-90.

Alghadir AH, Khalid S, Iqbal ZAJMP. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among information technology professionals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 2022.

Noraziera M, Norzaida AJJoARiOS, Health. Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms Assessment among Office Workers of a Manufacturing Company. 2018; 3(1): 1-7.

Bisht D, Bakhshi RJJoA, Science N. Knowledge of computer ergonomics and incidence of musculoskeletal disorders among students of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. 2018; 10(1): 323-9.

Das A, Shah S, Adhikari TB, et al. Computer vision syndrome, musculoskeletal, and stress-related problems among visual display terminal users in Nepal. 2022; 17(7): e0268356.

Lee S-P, Hsu Y-T, Bair B, Toberman M, Chien L-CJJoPTS. Gender and posture are significant risk factors to musculoskeletal symptoms during touchscreen tablet computer use. 2018; 30(6): 855-61.

Amro A, Albakry S, Jaradat M, et al. Musculoskeletal disorders and association with social media use among university students at the quarantine time of COVID-19 outbreak. 2020.

Maradei F, Rodriguez J, Castellanos J. Analysis of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on office workers at the Industrial University of Santander. International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics; 2019: Springer; 2019. p. 135-45.

Hassan HMJ, Ehsan S, Arshad HSJIJoS, Research. Frequency of computer vision syndrome & ergonomic practices among computer engineering students. 2016; 5(5): 121-5.

Chinedu OO, Henry AT, Nene JJ, Okwudili JDJEJoHS. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among office workers in higher education institutions: A cross-sectional study. 2020; 30(5).

Singh H, Singh LPJW. Musculoskeletal disorders among insurance office employees: A case study. 2019; 64(1): 153-60.

Soares CO, Pereira BF, Gomes MVP, Marcondes LP, de Campos Gomes F, de Melo-Neto JSJRBdMdT. Preventive factors against work-related musculoskeletal disorders: narrative review. 2019; 17(3): 415.

Dinar A, Susilowati IH, Azwar A, Indriyani K, Wirawan MJKLS. Analysis of ergonomic risk factors in relation to musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in office workers. 2018: 16–29-16–29.

Bagheri S, GHaljahi MJAJoW, Environment, Pollution. Ergonomic Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders with Rapid Office Strain Assessment and Its Association with Occupational Burnout among Computer Users at Zabol University of Medical Sciences in 2017. 2019; 16(1): 91-6.




How to Cite

Yousaf, F., Batool, A., Qurat ul Ain, A. ., Ayesha Nawaz, Rehan Amjad, M., & Anfal Sadaqat. (2023). Knowledge and Practices of Ergonomics in Students of Private Universities Using Computers: Ergonomics in Students Using Computers. The Healer Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, 3(2), 383–389.





Most read articles by the same author(s)