Effects of Breakfast on Physical Activity, Attentiveness and Cognitive Functions in Young Adults of Islamabad, Pakistan; A Comparative Cross-sectional Study

Effects of Breakfast on Physical Activity & Cognitive Function


  • Faryal Shakoor Yusra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences
  • Urwah Masud Max health Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Hania Farheen Department of Rehab Sciences, STMU Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zoya Mehmood Department of Rehab Sciences, STMU Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Pashmina Fayyaz Max health Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Maria Zafar Yusra Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences




attentiveness, breakfast, cognitive functions, physical activity, young adults


Background: The prevalence of breakfast skippers among the young population appears to be increasing. Several studies have been conducted on the breakfast routines of children and their effects, but young adults have been neglected. Objective: To compare the impact of breakfast eaters and skippers on physical activity, attentiveness and cognition in young adults of Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study, carried out at Shifa Tameer e Millat University Islamabad, Pakistan from August 2020 to January 2021. Healthy young adults of both genders aged 18-25 years were included except those having any active pathology, mental illness, sedative-hypnotics or smokers were excluded from the study. Informed consent was taken from each participant's priory. About 100 participants were enrolled in the study (50 in each group) through non-probability purposive sampling. Respondents were allocated to groups A (breakfast eaters) and B (breakfast skippers) based on the criteria taken from recent studies. Physical activity and attentiveness were measured through the standard international physical activity questionnaire short form and everyday life attention scale questionnaire respectively whereas cognitive functions were assessed using Stroop and digit span test. Results: The mean age of respondents in groups A (breakfast eaters) and B (breakfast skippers) was 21.6±1.77 and 21.3±1.80 years respectively. Physical activity and cognitive functions statistically showed no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). For attentiveness, all components of the everyday life attention scale questionnaire showed no significant difference (p≥0.05) except for the G component (preparing a meal) which showed a significant difference between both groups (p≤0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that there is no significant difference in breakfast on physical activity, attentiveness and cognitive functions in young adults of Islamabad, Pakistan.


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How to Cite

Shakoor, F., Masud, U., Farheen, H., Mehmood, Z., Fayyaz, P., & Zafar, M. (2023). Effects of Breakfast on Physical Activity, Attentiveness and Cognitive Functions in Young Adults of Islamabad, Pakistan; A Comparative Cross-sectional Study: Effects of Breakfast on Physical Activity & Cognitive Function . The Healer Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, 3(3), 399–406. https://doi.org/10.55735/hjprs.v3i3.131