Prevalence of Medial Elbow Pain in Taxi Drivers of Lahore; A Cross-Sectional Study

Medial Elbow Pain in Taxi Drivers


  • Muhammad Azam Qaryat Sanad Rehabilitation Resort, Dubai
  • Asna Waseem Central Park Medical College
  • Arif Ali Rana Central Park Medical College
  • Muhammad Qasim Idrees Central Park Medical College
  • Irfan Ahmed Central Park Medical College
  • Hamza Dastgir Coventry University, UK



Medial Elbow Pain, Prevalence, Visual Analogue Scale


Background: Pain in the medial side of elbow in taxi drivers is a work-related problem that normally comprises repetitive movement and occurs commonly in wrist flexion with pronation of the forearm. Objective: To determine the prevalence of medial elbow pain in taxi drivers in Lahore. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised of 268 taxi drivers from Lahore. Questionnaires were given to taxi drivers who were recruited through convenient sampling. Consent forms, both in Urdu and English were explained before data collection. Professional participants who had taxi driving as an occupation and who were working for two years were involved in this study. To fulfill the criteria of a sample size that was 268 the record of taxi drivers was also gathered from the e-record of Uber and Careem, Lahore. Taxi drivers of age 20 to 55 years, both gender and those who had working hours of 5 to 8 or more hours were included in this study. Drivers who had any recent traumatic injury or had been in a recent road traffic accident, undergone surgery were excluded from this study. The visual analogue scale was used as an outcome measuring tool to assess the medial elbow pain in taxi drivers. The taxi drivers were asked to fill out questionnaires, which consisted of questions focusing on pain, daily activities, difficulties in function and personal care. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 23, qualitative data was presented as frequency and percentages. Results: The prevalence of medial pain elbow pain came out to be 38.8% (103 participants), 30 (11.2%) were having mild pain, 64 (23.9%) moderate, 9 (3.4%) severe while 165 (61.5%) were free from medial elbow pain. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of medial elbow pain in professional taxi drivers was 38.4% and affected the activities of daily living of drivers. Most drivers reported the pain within mild to moderate range. Pain in the medial aspect of the elbow can arise in taxi drivers due to the nature of their work and factors such as long working hours, prolonged sitting, whole body vibration and poor ergonomic design of taxi.


Shiri R, Viikari-Juntura E, Varonen H, Heliövaara M. Prevalence and determinants of lateral and medial epicondylitis: a population study. American journal of epidemiology 2006; 164(11): 1065-74.

Shiri R, Viikari-Juntura E. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors. Best practice & research Clinical rheumatology 2011; 25(1): 43-57.

Afsar SI, Cetin N, Ayas S, Mumcu GA, Karatas M. Ulnar nerve conduction abnormalities in Turkish taxi drivers. 2014.

Draghi F. Medial Elbow. Ultrasonography of the Upper Extremity: Elbow: Springer; 2018: 53-9. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77341-4_7

Bozentka DJ. Cubital tunnel syndrome pathophysiology. Clinical orthopaedics and related research 1998; (351): 90-4.

McPherson SA, Meals RA. Cubital tunnel syndrome. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 1992; 23(1): 111-23.

Robertson C, Saratsiotis J. A review of compressive ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 2005; 28(5): 345.

Lynch JR, Waitayawinyu T, Hanel DP, Trumble TE. Medial collateral ligament injury in the overhand-throwing athlete. The Journal of hand surgery 2008; 33(3): 430-7.

Cesmebasi A, O'driscoll SW, Smith J, Skinner JA, Spinner RJ. The snapping medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Clinical Anatomy 2015; 28(7): 872-7.

Field LD, Savoie FH. Common elbow injuries in sport. Sports medicine 1998; 26(3): 193-205.

Smedley J, Dick F, Sadhra S. Oxford handbook of occupational health: OUP Oxford; 2013.

Blaine TA, Lamikanra OE, Tomaszewski PM, Yacob A. Medial Elbow Pain. Essentials In Elbow Surgery: Springer; 2014: 29-46.

DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4625-4_3

Joseph L, Standen M, Paungmali A, Kuisma R, Sitilertpisan P, Pirunsan U. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among professional drivers: A systematic review. Journal of occupational health 2020; 62(1): e12150.

Sultan N. The review of prevalence of percieved work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD), namely lower back pain (LBP) amongst hackney carriage taxi drivers in birmingham. UK; 2013.

Katirji B. The clinical electromyography examination: An overview. Neurologic clinics 2002; 20(2): 291-303. DOI:

Bartels R, Verbeek A. Risk factors for ulnar nerve compression at the elbow: a case control study. Acta neurochirurgica 2007; 149(7): 669-74. DOI 10.1007/s00701-007-1166-5

Novak CB, Mehdian H, von Schroeder HP. Laxity of the ulnar nerve during elbow flexion and extension. The Journal of hand surgery 2012; 37(6): 1163-7.

Osma-Rueda JL, Amaya-Mujica J. Entrapment of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel by free intra-articular body—a case report. JSES Open Access 2017; 1(2): 109-12. DOI:

Hossain I. Musculoskeletal symptoms prevalence and associated risk factors among occupational bus drivers in Bangladesh: Bangladesh Health Professions Institute (The academic institute of CRP; 2015.

Atallah AA, Althuwaybi SE, Faydh JA, Alsherbi RK, Alsufyani ME, Aljuaid HM. Prevalence of lower back pain and its relationship with driving postures among drivers in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2022; 14(5): 433. DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_882_21

Bijur PE, Silver W, Gallagher EJ. Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain. Academic emergency medicine 2001; 8(12): 1153-7.

Viikari-Juntura E, Kurppa K, Kuosma E, et al. Prevalence of epicondylitis and elbow pain in the meat-processing industry. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health 1991: 38-45.

Gregory B, Nyland J. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal 2013; 3(2): 91. DOI: 10.11138/mltj/2013.3.2.91

Bugajska J, Żołnierczyk-Zreda D, Jędryka-Góral A, et al. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study. Rheumatology international 2013; 33(12): 2975-83. DOI 10.1007/s00296-013-2843-8

Sakata J, Nakamura E, Suzukawa M, Akaike A, Shimizu K. Physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players: a prospective cohort study of 353 players. The American journal of sports medicine 2017; 45(1): 135-43.

Kyung G, Nussbaum MA. Specifying comfortable driving postures for ergonomic design and evaluation of the driver workspace using digital human models. Ergonomics 2009; 52(8): 939-53.

Julius A, Lees R, Dilley A, Lynn B. Shoulder posture and median nerve sliding. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004; 5(1): 1-7.


Yosef T, Belachew A, Tefera Y. Magnitude and contributing factors of low back pain among long distance truck drivers at Modjo dry port, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Journal of environmental and public health 2019; 2019. DOI: 10.1155/2019/6793090

Zafar F, Qasim YF, Farooq MU, Shamael I, Khan IU, Khan DH. The frequency of different risk factors for lower back pain in a tertiary care hospital. Cureus 2018; 10(8).


Robb MJ, Mansfield NJ. Self-reported musculoskeletal problems amongst professional truck drivers. Ergonomics 2007; 50(6): 814-27.




How to Cite

Azam, M., Waseem, A., Rana, A. A., Idrees, M. Q., Ahmed, I., & Dastgir, H. (2022). Prevalence of Medial Elbow Pain in Taxi Drivers of Lahore; A Cross-Sectional Study: Medial Elbow Pain in Taxi Drivers . The Healer Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2(3), 213–220.





Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>