Factors Associated with Risk of Fall in Elderly Population
Risk of Fall in Elderly Population
Keywords:Elderly Population, Fall Risk, Risk Factors
Background: Fall-related injuries and complications are common in the elderly population. Falls can be induced by a variety of internal or extrinsic circumstances. In Pakistan, awareness about the risk factors associated with falls in the elderly population might be a great step in saving the expenses leading to the treatment of the elderly population. Objective: To determine the factors associated with fall risk in the elderly population. Methods: After taking approval from the ethical committee of the university, this cross-sectional study based on a research survey that included subjects above 60 years of age was conducted. Local Pakistani regions like Islamabad and Rawalpindi were included in the community. Individuals with neurological deficiencies or comorbid conditions, a history of falls, fractures or any surgery were excluded from the study. A sample size of 184 older participants was recruited in this study using non-probability convenient sampling. The self-structured questionnaire was used asking the older population about their age, previous history of falls and fears concerning falls while the outcome measuring scales used were the activities-specific balance confidence scale and the Berg balance scale. Results: Out of 184, there were 108 (55.97%) men and 81 (44.02%) women. The mean age was 69.76 ±8.5, with a minimum age of 60 and a maximum age of 108. When assessed using an activities-specific balance confidence scale, surgical history, medical history, incidents due to falls, and previous episodes of fall show a significant association with a minimum score of 15.12 and a maximum score of 99.30 with a mean of 68.83±24.39. On the contrary, medical history, history of fall injuries due to falls, and p-value less than 0.05 are significant factors when assessed using the Berg balance scale with a minimum score of 9 and a maximum score of 56 with a mean of 43.57±12.3. Conclusion: Elderly Females are at greater risk of falls while physical inactivity is another factor that leads to falling. There is no link between systemic, respiratory, or cardiac history and fall risk but problems in the vestibular system concerning the inner ear which controls balance are associated with falls in the elderly population.
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